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乐鱼体育官网登录:双语阅读:美国生产的博士学位太多了,特别是文科博士供大于求
2021-12-05 00:49
本文摘要:美国大量生产的博士太多了翻译:涂博士美国的博士学位项目将碰面临一些重大的改变。人文和社会科学领域授予的博士学位可能太多了,因此需要一定的缩减,可是大规模扩展由政府资助的研究事情,可以阻止类似的运气降落到科学技术工程数学(STEM)专业的博士学位项目上。在已往许多年以来,美国博士学位的生产过剩一直是一个问题,美国人口中的博士学位持有者的比例比险些所有其它富足国家都要高。

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美国大量生产的博士太多了翻译:涂博士美国的博士学位项目将碰面临一些重大的改变。人文和社会科学领域授予的博士学位可能太多了,因此需要一定的缩减,可是大规模扩展由政府资助的研究事情,可以阻止类似的运气降落到科学技术工程数学(STEM)专业的博士学位项目上。在已往许多年以来,美国博士学位的生产过剩一直是一个问题,美国人口中的博士学位持有者的比例比险些所有其它富足国家都要高。

有这么多博士自己并不是一件坏事;拥有众多受过良好教育的民众通常是件好事,而且美国的研究人员还资助美国的知识工业保持在全球经济的前列。众多的博士对美国的大学系统也做出了重大孝敬,为大学的研究和本科教育提供了廉价,高技术的劳动力资源。

可是当读博士的学生在拿到学位走入社会后,问题就开始来了。这些博士习惯从事的学术事情现在已经越来越少了, 20世纪大学扩建热潮的竣事敲响了终结这个职业通道的第一个丧钟。由于许多教授职位都是终身的,因此除非美国建设更多的大学,否则青年学者就不会有许多时机获得终身制的教职。

在谷歌(Google)上快速搜索一下任何学术领域的趋势,不管是历史,人类学,还是英语,你都可能会发现一个很是恐怖的效果,那就是终身制的教师职位正在越来越少。造成终身制教师职位短缺的另一个原因是,在削减成本的庞大压力下,大学越来越多地选择雇佣低薪的讲师和兼职,而不是终身任职的教师。随着本科生入学率连续地处于低潮,这种压力越来越大了。

这种情形逼得许多未来学者现在不得不依靠做那些低薪的暂时事情来艰辛过活。就像那些坚持在好莱坞的餐馆打工的服务生希望自己某一天能遇到一个大机缘成为明星一样,许多学子为了未来能够进入学术界,放弃了康健保险,住在破旧的公寓里,年复一年地坚持下去,而随着时间的流失,他们也越来越不适合在学术界以外的行业事情了。可是,纵然那令人羡慕的教授生活已经变得越来越遥不行及,美国仍在继续造就出更多的博士。固然,这一切全都发生在新冠肺炎大盛行之前。

新冠疫情的大盛行给高等教育带来了极重攻击,疫情迫使学生留在家里,并引起一些人质疑他们读的大学是否物有所值。对于这个问题有一个显着的解决方案,那就是博士结业生需要放弃那些不切实际的学术梦想,选择进入私营部门事情。这是一个明智的选择,但问题在于学生的主要职业照料也是他们的博士论文导师,而这些导师自己就是学者,因此通常他们也只知道学术上的职业途径该如何走。从基础上说,许多博士并不值得私营部门去雇佣。

例如,历史博士可以进入公司人事部门,市场营销或咨询部门,或者开办自己的初创公司或做其它种种各样的事情,可是,博士做的事情是否就一定会比那些刚结业就事情的本科生或硕士生要好许多呢?因此,只管学盘算机科学或统计学的博士会因为他们的学位而在公司的职位门路上多跳几级,工程和生物学博士可以凭他们的学位在私人实验室中找到事情,但学人文科学和社会科学的博士却经常找不到合适的事情。这种情形会对社会的运转带来庞大的危害。

许多历史学家提出了这样的论点,认为部门精英层对未来的绝望会给社会带来动荡。最近,历史学家彼得·特钦(Peter Turchin)警告说,精英阶级的过分膨胀是现代美国反面谐的预兆。有证据讲明,虽然读博士从来就不容易,但现在随着对职业前景越来越焦虑,学生读博期间的压力也越来越大。光凭少数几个恼怒的,越混越差的英语学博士自己的气力还不足以颠覆整个社会的体制,但如果他们愿意,他们可以在社会动荡和冲突中起到庞大的作用。

记着,这都是些很是智慧的人,他们的笔杆子好,又接触到了种种异议思想,这些人天生就是那些会提倡和向导革命的人。要解决博士生产过剩的问题有两个解决措施。

首先第一步就是增加对博士的需求。这在科学,技术,工程和数学领域很容易做到:只需将更多的政府资金投入到研究中去就可以了。为了保持技术领先职位和提高经济增长率,美国原来就需要这样做。

五月份民主党参议员查尔斯·舒默(Charles Schumer)在两党的支持下提出的法案《无尽界限法》中提议每年花费200亿美元在研究和开发上。如果该项法案能够获得通过,那么在工程,生物学和其它科学技术工程数学(STEM)领域中吸收掉那些过剩的博士就应该没有什么大问题。可是对于人文和社会科学领域的博士来说,这么快的解决方法是不行能存在的。政府不行能每年拨款数十亿美元来促进非科学技术工程数学(STEM)领域的研究。

因此,必须将这些领域结业的博士数量淘汰到与新的经济现实相适应的水平。这种情形现在已经开始发生了,有140多小我私家文和社会科学学位课程已经暂停招收2021年度的博士研究生了。

对于那些想从事一辈子学术研究的年轻人来说,面临现在这个现实是痛苦和难受的,不外,现在对大学的种种压缩就意味着那些梦想内里原来就有许多是不切实际的。与其它许多事情一样,要想将学术梦想带回到现实中来,美国另有许多艰辛的事情要去完成。在开始阅读英文原文之前,请先温习下列焦点词汇:pump - v. 用泵输送,涌出pump out - 不中断大量生产Ph.D. - 博士(Doctor of Philosophy的缩写)program - n. 法式,计划,纲领humanity - n. 人文学科befalling - v. 降临到(某人)头上STEM - 科学、技术、工程、数学的合称Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathdoctorate - n. 博士学位holder - n. 持有者,拥有者educated - adj. 受过…教育的populace - n. 民众academic - adj. 学业的,教学的,学术的tenure - n. 终身职位,恒久聘用open spot - 在招聘的职位university - n. 大学trend - n. 趋势anthropology - n. 人类学shortage - n. 短缺,缺少adjunct - n. 隶属物,附件,助手exacerbated - v. 使恶化,使加剧enrollment - n. 挂号,注册,入学flatline - v. 处于低潮,没有起色bleak - adj. 荒芜的,不乐观的,无望的hang around - (在某处)等候,闲呆着shabby - adj. 破旧的,破烂的,破败的qualification - n. 资历,资格pandemic - n. (全国或全球性)盛行病grievous - adj. 极严重的,使人痛苦的underemployed - adj. 未充实就业的recipe - n. 食谱,秘诀,方法societal - adj. 社会的dysfunction - n. 性能障碍,功效失调dole - v. 发放救援,以小份发给dole out - 发放,发给squeeze - v. 挤压fantasy - n. 理想,想象在温习了以上词汇后,请将下面的英文原文一口吻读完,不要在中途停下往复查那些不认识的单词。有了上面的焦点单词打底,你完全可以将整篇文章读完而且明白内里的大致意思。

记着,你只要做到大致明确就可以了。阅读能力和阅读量成正比,要提高阅读量,必须是大量的泛读,如果要对每个不懂的单词都去查字典,那么就不行能通过大量的泛读来提高你的阅读量。这篇英语原文是《涂博士原版听读写领导课》直播班上用来训练学员快速阅读的文章之一。能够快速阅读各个领域的原版文章并找出文中的焦点内容,是真正学好英语的最最基础的技术之一,另一个最最基础的技术就是听得懂原版的广播。

有了这两个最最基础的技术打底,学员就可以使用好网上大量的原版英语文章和听力资源,不出国就可以把自己沉醉在英语的情况当中。在建设起强大的语感之后,口语和写作能力都市自然发展起来。如果你对某篇泛读文章特别喜欢,可以在泛读一遍以后再逐步地精读。

如果在精读的历程中对某些句子不是太明确需要解说,或者你希望以后多看到哪方面的双语阅读,接待直接联系涂博士。America Is Pumping Out Too Many Ph.D.sNoah Smith(Bloomberg Opinion) -- Ph.D. programs in the U.S. are in for some big changes. Humanities and social science fields probably produce too many Ph.D.s and will need to cut back. But a big expansion of government-funded research could prevent a similar fate from befalling STEM Ph.D.s.The overproduction of Ph.D.s has been an issue for years in the U.S., which has a higher rate of doctorate holders than almost any other rich country.That by itself isn't a bad thing; it's generally good to have a more educated populace, and U.S. researchers help keep the country's knowledge industries at the forefront of the global economy. Ph.D.s contribute substantially to the university system, providing a source of cheap, highly skilled labor for both research and undergraduate education.But the problem starts when the Ph.D. students collect their degrees and go out into the world. The academic jobs they're accustomed to pursuing have been drying up. The end of the big 20th-century university building boom was the first death knell for this pipeline. Since many professor jobs are tenured, there just aren't many open spots for young scholars unless the country is building more universities — which it no longer is. Do a quick Google search for trends in any academic field — history, anthropology, English — and you're likely to find scary numbers showing a decline in tenure-track faculty openings.Another reason for the job shortage is that colleges, under immense pressure to cut costs, have been shifting away from tenured faculty toward lower-paid lecturers and adjuncts. That pressure has been exacerbated as undergraduate enrollment has flatlined.This condemns many would-be scholars to a bleak existence of low-wage, contingent work. Like waiters hanging around Hollywood hoping for their big break, many stick around year after year, forgoing health insurance or living in shabby apartments while their qualifications for jobs outside academia decay.But even as that coveted professor life drifted further out of reach, the country kept producing more Ph.D.s.And, of course, this was all pre-Covid-19. The pandemic has dealt a grievous blow to higher education, keeping students home and causing some to question whether they're getting value for money at their schools.One obvious solution is that Ph.D.s need to forsake the unrealistic academic dream and go into the private sector. And that's a sensible course. The problem is that students' main career advisers are also their doctoral thesis advisers, who are themselves academics and therefore tend to know only the academic route.Even more fundamentally, many doctorates are simply not worth it in purely private-sector terms. A history Ph.D. can go into a corporate personnel department or marketing or consulting or launch their own startup or do a million other things — but it's highly questionable whether they'll do much better than they would have if they'd just taken a job straight out of college or acquired a master's degree. So while computer science or statistics Ph.D.s can probably hop up a few rungs on the corporate ladder as a result of their degrees, and engineering and biology Ph.D.s can go get a job in a private lab, doctorate holders in the humanities and social sciences are often going to be underemployed.That's a recipe for societal dysfunction. Many historians have advanced some version of the thesis that dashed expectations among elites can lead to social unrest. Most recently, historian Peter Turchin has warned that overproduction of elites is a harbinger of discord in modern America. There's evidence that Ph.D. school, never a particularly fun experience, is becoming increasingly stressful thanks to growing worry about careers.A handful of angry, downwardly mobile English Ph.D.s aren't by themselves enough to overthrow the institutions of society, but they can make hugely outsized contributions to unrest and discord if they are so inclined. Remember, these are very smart people who are very good at writing things, and well-schooled in any number of dissident ideas. Those are the kind of people who tend to lead revolutions.There are two solutions to the Ph.D. overproduction problem. The first is to increase the demand for Ph.D.s. In the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, that's actually pretty easy to do: Simply pour a lot more government money into research. That's something the U.S. badly needs to do anyway, in order to maintain technological leadership and push up economic growth rates. The Endless Frontier Act, a bill introduced by Democratic Senator Charles Schumer in May with bipartisan support, proposes spending $20 billion a year on research and development. If that legislation were to be passed, it would probably be sufficient to mop up any excess Ph.D.s in engineering, biology and other STEM fields.But for humanities and social science Ph.D.s, there's no such quick fix. The government isn't going to dole out billions a year boosting research in non-STEM areas. So the production of Ph.D.s in these fields simply needs to be reduced to a level in line with new economic realities. Already this is happening, with more than 140 humanities and social science programs suspending Ph.D. student admissions for 2021.This is going to be painful and frustrating for some young people who dream of studying those subjects for a living. But the squeeze on universities meant that those dreams always contained an element of fantasy. As with so many other things, America is going to have to do the hard work of bringing its academic dreams down to earth.。


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